I Wish I Was as Tough as a Chickadee!

I Wish I Was as Tough as a Chickadee!

I Wish I Was as Tough as a Chickadee!

6 minute read – Banner image photo credit: Syd Cannings, iNaturalist

Gram for gram, there are few creatures in the North that have the endurance, temerity and constitution equal to a Boreal Chickadee. An iconic small bird of the north, this species lives its entire life in the Boreal forest and does not migrate to warmer southern climates in the winter months. Chickadees have adapted to not only survive, but to thrive in harsh winter conditions known across this northern biome.

For hundreds of thousands of years Boreal Chickadees, a cousin of the Black-capped varieties, has called the upper lands of North America home. It is believed to have crossed the Bering land bridge from present-day Russia into North America, very much like the first humans and many animal species to arrive in the Americas.

A secret to the Chickadee’s success is its work ethic where much of the summer is spent gathering and storing food, in the form of insects and their larva; seeds of many varieties and fat often gathered from animal carcases killed by much larger predators. Chickadees are frequent participants in cleaning up the remains of other animals as they can eat and digest just about anything organic.

They cache their winter larder in the bark and crevasses of trees, in tree cavities and roots, rock faces and structures. They demonstrate a very reliable memory for where they hid these morsels as some weeks later they return and consume them, often retrieved from beneath snow cover.1https://www.hww.ca/en/wildlife/birds/chickadee.html

A very social bird, the Boreal Chickadee is often found in the company of its cousins the Black-capped variety, Nuthatches, Pine Siskins, Red Polls, Kinglets and other regular visitors to bird feeders in the back yard. Their cheerful call is very recognizable and can often be heard following an insect hatch when their food gathering activities stimulate greater activity.

It is believed that Boreal Chickadees mate for life with the pair remaining together all year. The nest site is often a hole in a tree, either a natural cavity or old woodpecker hole; chickadees may also excavate their own site or enlarge an existing hole. The nest site is usually low, within twelve feet above the ground. Both male and female help with excavation, but only the female builds the nest inside. Nest has a foundation of moss, bark strips, lichens, topped with: feathers, plant seed fluff and the fur and hair shed by local animals. In human occupied locations, nests have been found to contain clothes dryer lint, threads and strings and similar items useful for the purpose.

This is a Boreal Chickadee’s cousin, the Blackcapped Chickadee making a nest in the spring of 2020. Watch the Wild Spring Adventures video for the action of this busy bird and other spring happenings at the Preserve. 

After breeding, the hen will lay up to nine eggs in a single clutch. These are white, with fine reddish brown dots often concentrated at the egg’s larger end. Only the female sits to incubate the eggs which take between ten and fifteen days to hatch. The male captures food and brings it to the brooding female during incubation. The female stays with the young and broods them much of the time at first, while the male continues to bring food. Growing quickly and developing flight feathers within a week of hatching, the young leave nest at about 20 days.

As summer concludes and the fall winds blow through the trees, Chickadees put on fresh, heavier plumage. And their feathers are more dense than most birds’, creating a comfy down parka for the chickadee. And most impressive, the chickadees adapt to deep cold by lowering their body temperature at night from 42 degrees Celsius to just 29.5 degrees. In this way, the birds conserve their stores of insulating fat as their metabolism slows. They fluff their feathers up so they truly look like little balls of fluff capturing more body heat within the airspace created within their feathery parka.

An average Boreal Chickadee weighs only a third of an ounce and its body size – without all the fluffy feathers – is about as big as an adult human’s thumb. It truly is remarkable how a creature this small and delicate can endure the harsh frigid cold of a six-month Yukon winter.

Each year the local Yukon Bird Club does several outtings and observations including a the winter seasonal Christmas Bird Count across the Territory – several variety of chickadee are noted to withstand Yukon winters! It’s an excellent citizen science engagement that contributes to a North American wide bird monitoring and conservation program. The Preserve boasts an array of species for bird lovers year-round but especially in Spring migration and throughout summer.

Annual Spring bird walk at the Yukon Wildlife Preserve.
Photo Credit: Jake Paleczny. 

Doug Caldwell

Doug Caldwell

Wildlife Interpreter

Doug is one of the Interpretive Wildlife Guides here at the Preserve. An avid angler and hunter he has a broad knowledge of Yukon’s wilderness and the creatures that live here. With a focus on the young visitors to the Preserve, Doug takes the extra time to help our guests to better appreciate the many wonders of the animal kingdom here in the Yukon.

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Fall In to Autumn

Fall In to Autumn

Fall In to Autumn

5 minute read – 
Autumn is a season of change! It’s the bridge which helps us transition from summer towards winter. What a beautiful bridge it is, with leaves blazing colour in vibrant hues of red, orange and yellow. Fireweed has flowered and the leaves are crimson. Against this backdrop the first snows fall on the mountaintops.

Birds begin their migration back to their southern overwintering grounds, after a summer spent mating, nesting, rearing young, and eating well. Before we see the V’s flying overhead, we often hear them honking and calling to each other.

In the world of ungulates, it is the time of the rut. Antlered animals have finished growing this season’s antlers; their velvet has sloughed off and now they sport their hardened, ready-to-duel finery. We can see and hear as the males clash, challenging each other for the right to breed the females. Elk stags bugle, bull moose softly grunt – calling to interested females in the area and warning off competing males.

Watson, in the foreground, has shed the velvet on his first year’s full antler growth.

Those with horns are also clashing. This looks less like a duel and more like a train crash. Thinhorn Mountain Sheep rams, both Stone and Dall subspecies, run at each other and smash heavy horns together – the echo of this collision ricochets like a rifle shot. Muskox bulls have been rumbling since early August, chasing each other, establishing dominance and finally banging horns as they work to impress the females for breeding rights.
We begin to notice a lack of Arctic Ground Squirrel activity. We no longer hear the constant shrill warnings as nearby predators hunt; where are these industrious rodents? Hibernation comes early – females are already underground for the long winter ahead, and the last of the males aboveground continue to harvest and stockpile their midden, into early October. Predators such as Red Foxes can be seen traveling from one burrow-entrance to another…..looking for a disappearing meal of ground squirrel which used to be in abundance. Soon they’ll be gone completely, hibernating through the winter, under a thick layer of blanketing snow – but not just yet.

Autumn means hibernation is coming.  We’ve noticed a lessening of Arctic Ground Squirrel activity at Yukon Wildlife Preserve.

Humans are adding clothing layers, finding sweaters, mitts and toques in storage. We need these warm additions on the crisp, cold autumn mornings. Afternoon sunshine heats up; we turn our faces to the sun and shed those layers – it’s not winter yet! So too are the animals growing coats of winter fur, wool and hair. Mountain goats have spent all summer shedding last winter’s wool; almost immediately it’s time to grow in this winter’s layer of hair. Arctic Foxes are beginning to add some white to their brown and grey camouflage. They not only change colour with their winter fur, they also add seeming bulk. All those layers of white fluffy fur help them stay warm, maintain body core temperature and thrive in the harsh winter environment of the Far North.
Enjoying this short season is highly recommended – there’s nothing as seasonally relevant or celebratory as jumping into a pile of autumnal leaves. Cranberries are ripening, harvesting continues. Underneath the beauty of the changing season, there is a sense of urgency. Whether we are human or animal, we know winter is coming, and while it’s not here yet, time and opportunity are limited to eat, put enough weight on, or store food to survive the coming months.

Summer is over, the cycle continues. Autumn is the clear signal to prepare for what’s ahead. Fall in to Autumn; experience the sights and sounds with enjoyment, wherever you are.

Julie Kerr

Julie Kerr

Visitor Services Coordinator

Julie is a Registered Veterinary Technologist, living and working in Whitehorse since 2012. She joined the team in May 2018. She is passionate about wildlife, nature and living in a conscious manner with both. Her free time is spent outdoors observing wild animals and ecosystems; her connection to the natural world around her brings great joy – joy she loves to share with anyone interested. Honestly? Work and life blend rather seamlessly.

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